Work Packages

WP 1: Quasi Stead-State Operation

Lead: Aristotle University of Thessaloniki

Voltage regulation and low-frequency power smoothing are considered under Quasi-Steady-State operation. Firstly, relevant metrics for the quantification of the contribution of the various DRES/BESS to voltage regulation and low frequency power smoothing are defined. Secondly, the reactive power capability of the DRES/BESS converters is expressed in a parametric form and the control system of the respective converters is developed so as to emulate conventional SGs. In addition, an analytical tool is developed for the evaluation of the additional operational losses within the converters, while they are providing reactive power. Furthermore, algorithms for the optimal voltage regulation within the MV ICAs and the LV μGs are developed, so that both are self-reliant with respect to voltage regulation using their own assets (DRES, storage systems and the reactive power compensation systems of MV industrial customers) in a coordinated way. Moreover, a methodology will be developed and implemented in a simple-to-use software tool, so that the DSOs can estimate the maximum DRES penetration in the existing LV feeders before a feeder upgrade is needed. Additionally, each ICA will be able to provide reactive power support as an AS to the transmission system through the central BESS of the ICA, after receiving a relative reactive power set-point by the TSO. Finally, a tool will be developed, so as to evaluate analytically and in parametric form the required central BESS size and the associated power converter located at the LV μG and ICA for implementing the low-frequency power smoothing strategy.

WP 2: Development of DRES/BESS Converter Functionalities for Dynamic & Transient Response

Lead: Universidad de Sevilla

The aim of this WP is to develop methodologies to make the converter-interfaced DRES/BESS behave like or even better than controllable SGs during dynamic and transient events. A unified approach will be adopted with small modifications for each primary energy resource technology and storage source. Firstly, relevant metrics will be defined for the quantification of the envisioned functionalities, i.e., i) inertial response, ii) PFR, iii) active filtering and iv) highfrequency power smoothing. Secondly, dynamic models will be developed for the different power components. Based on the obtained models, the dynamic functionalities i)-iv) will be implemented. In addition, an optimization tool will be developed that will enable the DSO to evaluate almost in real time the aggregated inertial and PFR capability of the respective ICA. Finally, based on the proposed i)-iv) functionalities and the optimization tool, an algorithm will be developed for the derivation of a VPP-like equivalent model of the distribution network that will be suitable for dynamic and transient studies. During the real operation, the parameters of this model will be frequently updated by the DSO and transmitted to the TSO, so that the latter can include all relevant ICAs in the frequency response studies of the overall power system.

WP 3: Protection Coordination

Lead: Aristotle University of Thessaloniki

The protection schemes in existing typical power distribution networks have been designed on the basis of two assumptions: i) The difference in the magnitude of fault currents, as compared to normal operation currents, provides a means for definite fault detection. ii) Selectivity ensures that only the protection means closest to a fault will react, isolating thus the minimum possible portion of the network. In traditional networks, the former assumption is valid because of the existence of SGs (providing the essentially large fault currents), while the latter one holds because of the typically unidirectional power flow in these networks. However, in the presence of DRES, the second assumption becomes invalid due to the emerging bidirectional power flow. Thus, phenomena tend to appear, such as protection blinding, false tripping and loss of recloser coordination, which aggravate as the DRES penetration increases. At the same time, the first assumption also loses its validity as the DRES penetration increases, because of the corresponding decrease of SGs in the system.
Evidently, the achievement of greater DRES penetration in existing distribution networks will require the confrontation of these issues, in order to establish effective network protection. The aim of this WP is to enable the coordinated participation of the DRES and storage systems in the fault clearing process within the μGs and the ICAs. The target is to preserve or even enhance the protection coordination under increasing DRES penetration without requiring an upgrade of the existing fault-protection means. The idea is to make DRES and storage systems react to faults in a timely way with location dependent fault currents so that the selectivity of the existing protection means is preserved.

WP 4: ICT infrastructure for ICAs & µGs

Lead: Universität Passau

This WP is concerned with designing the resilient and flexible ICT infrastructure that provides the backbone for data communication and processing that supports and assists in accounting, control and optimization within EASY-RES. It falls into five tasks that address all related issues.
The objectives of this WP are: i) Define a high-level substrate architecture for interactions in the EASY-RES ecosystem based on stat-of-the-art communication infrastructure and the definition of functional and non-functional requirements; ii) Development of novel mechanisms for secure and resilient data communication and storage to offer accounting, optimization and control services to AS providers and users; iii) Evaluation of network virtualization techniques in order to enhance the overall system’s flexibility (i.e. ICT as well as TSO and DSO infrastructure), and to improve critical ICT parameters (such as latency, availability or bandwidth guarantees) while maintaining a transparent application view; iv) Provision of data processing, analysis, and visualization to support the TSO and DSO operations such as accounting, optimization and control support. This also includes the optimized rescheduling to provide reliable virtual AS as ASaaS to ICAs, DSOs and TSOs.
The results of this work package will be used to: i) Ensure a smooth integration of components developed in WP1, WP2 and WP3 with ICT as well as timely lab support from ICT side; ii) Develop a prototype implementation of ICT components; iii) Verify enhanced reliability of virtualized communication infrastructure; iv) Provide a reliable AS-aaS components enabled by the flexibility of the resilient ICT.

WP 5: Cost analysis, new market opportunities & development of AS-based business models

Lead: Universidad de Sevilla

In this WP, new market opportunities and a number of business models will be developed for all involved stakeholders. The models will be based on the trading of AS that will be offered by the functionalities and algorithms developed within the scope of EASY-RES. A detailed cost-analysis carried out for each of the AS will provide the implementation, operational and maintenance cost as function of the service provided. After reviewing the current market regulations (particularly the AS market), any obstacles for the introduction of the new AS will be identified and appropriate modifications will be suggested. All possible revenue streams will be identified and quantified for each stakeholder. Based on these outcomes quantified business models for each stakeholder will be developed.

WP 6: Validation & Evaluation

Lead: TU Delft

The objectives of this WP are the validation of: i) the developed converter functionalities, ii) the voltage regulation and protection methodologies within the μGs and ICAs and iii) the algorithm for evaluating the feasible aggregated inertial and PFR of the ICA, iv) the black-start and islanded operation of the ICA, v) the evaluation of the KPIs associated with the various project objectives. Based on the validation and evaluation results, suggestions for modifications of relative existing grid codes will be made so that the developed functionalities and control methodologies are introduced at the LV and MV levels. The validation procedures will begin with initial simulations tests for each type of converter. These will be followed by the building of lab-scale prototypes, which will then be tested in an RTDS with hardware-in-the-loop environment, as well as in a multi-converter environment emulating the CIGRE-Benchmark MV and LV distribution grids. This stepwise validation procedure will bring the developed functionalities, methodologies and algorithms to TRL 4-5 from TRL 2-3 as described in detail in the various tasks.
The results of the validation tests will be used to refine the dynamic models of the DRES initially developed in WP2. The refined models will then be used in commercial-grade, validated simulation platforms to model the behavior of large grids such as the Greek (provided by ADMIE) or Spanish power system under large disturbances in order to evaluate the KPIs set in the project objectives. Finally, the CIGRE Benchmark MV and LV distribution grids, as well as representative distribution grids provided by the participating DSOs, will be simulated in detail for validation of the ICA and μG level methodologies and functionalities ii)-v), mentioned above.

WP 7: Dissemination & Exploitation

Lead: Zentrum Digitalisierung.Bayern

To spread the knowledge gained to the scientific community and pave the road for exploitation of the technologies and methodologies developed in the project based on new market opportunities and business models. This WP specifically aims to: (i) Disseminate project objectives and results; (ii) Disseminate the novel solutions and research results to scientific and industrial community; (iii) Develop a communication strategy, so that the project objectives and the methodologies reaches policy makers, utilities like DSOs and TSOs, regulating authorities and standardization bodies, Balancing Service Procurement operators and BSPs, stakeholders in the manufacturing and operation of storage and DRES, as well as local energy communities, willing to exploit the market opportunities created by the provision and quantification of a number of AS at the distribution grid level; (iv) Develop and maintain exploitation plan.

WP 8: Project Management & Coordination

Lead: Aristotle University of Thessaloniki

This WP is responsible for the administrative and financial project management and coordination, assuring the successful implementation of the project in line with the schedule and financial plan. Specifically, the management structure and tools described within this WP aim to achieve the following objectives: (i) carry out the overall administrative and financial management of the project; (ii) monitoring and reporting of technical status and progress to respective objectives, milestones and the KPIs described in Section 1.1; (iii) facilitate communication between the partners as well as with the European Commission (EC) and external agents by defining and implementing the communication procedures; (iv) establish an efficient system of communications and conflict resolution procedures, to support consortium interactions; (v) support partners in IPR management; (vi) ensure the decision making process is clear to all consortium members; (vii) Coordination of participation and contribution to external events, including relevant workshops and conferences.


WP1 to WP4 initially run in parallel, but at a certain point their results converge in order to build the prototype converters (T6.1) of DRES/BESS converters equipped with all the functionalities developed in T1.2, T1.5, T2.2, T2.3, T3.2 and T4.2. In WP5, detailed analysis of the implementation, operation and maintenance cost of all the developed AS will take place (T5.2). Subsequently, the various stakeholders and the associated revenue streams will be identified for the new AS-based market opportunities (T5.3). Based on them, a number of viable business models will be developed in a quantified way (T5.4). The status of the current market regulations will be reviewed and relevant modifications will be suggested in order to enable the introduction of the developed AS in the distribution grid and finally in the transmission system (T5.1). In WP6, the validation of the project technologies both at DRES/BESS and ICA level is made through detailed lab tests (T6.2) and simulations (T6.3). In this way, the expected advancement in their TRL is achieved. The prototype DRES/BESS converters implementing all the developed functionalities will be firstly built in T6.1. The results of the lab tests will be fed back to WP1-WP4, so that the derived models are updated. Using the updated models, extensive simulations with certified commercial-grade software platforms will be conducted in order to evaluate the KPIs set in the project objectives (T6.4). Finally, after reviewing the relevant grid codes and relevant modifications will be suggested, so that the new functionalities are introduced in the operation of the distribution grid and transmission systems. WP7 will coordinate the EASY-RES project dissemination and exploitation strategy. This will combine the results of WP1-WP6 and assure that a common project vision is clearly communicated, in order to maximize the impact of the EASY-RES innovations. WP8 will ensure efficient overall administrative, technical and financial coordination of the project.